【不规则形式】 knew , known
(not used in the progressive tenses 不用于进行时)
知悉 have information
~ (of/about sth)
to have information in your mind as a result of experience or because you have learned or been told it
[VN] Do you know his address?
The cause of the fire is not yet known.
All I know is that she used to work in a bank (= I have no other information about her) .
[V (that)] I know (that) people's handwriting changes as they get older.
[VN that] It is widely known that CFCs can damage the ozone layer.
[V wh-] I knew where he was hiding.
I didn't know what he was talking about.
[V] ‘You've got a flat tyre.’ ‘I know.’
‘What's the answer?’ ‘I don't know.’
‘There's no one in.’ ‘ How do you know? ’
You know about Amanda's baby, don't you?
I don't know about you, but I'm ready for something to eat.
I know of at least two people who did the same thing.
‘Is anyone else coming?’ ‘ Not that I know of. ’
‘Isn't that his car?’ ‘ I wouldn't know./How should I know? (= I don't know and I am not the person you should ask.) ’
(informal) ‘What are you two whispering about?’ ‘ You don't want to know (= because you would be shocked or wouldn't approve) .’
[V to inf] Does he know to come here (= that he should come here) first?
[VN to inf] We know her to be honest.
Two women are known to have died.
see also need-to-know
to realize, understand or be aware of sth
[V (that)] As soon as I walked in the room I knew (that) something was wrong.
She knew she was dying.
[V wh-] I knew perfectly well what she meant.
I know exactly how you feel.
[VN] This case is hopeless and he knows it (= although he will not admit it) .
[V] ‘Martin was lying all the time.’ ‘ I should have known .’
确信 feel certain
to feel certain about sth
[V (that)] He knew (that) he could trust her.
I know it's here somewhere!
I don't know that I can finish it by next week.
[VN] ‘You were right─someone's been spreading rumours about you.’ ‘I knew it!’
[V] ‘She's the worst player in the team.’ ‘Oh, I don't know (= I am not sure that I agree) ─she played well yesterday.’
see also don't-know
熟悉 be familiar
to be familiar with a person, place, thing, etc.
I've known David for 20 years.
Do you two know each other (= have you met before) ?
She's very nice when you get to know her.
Knowing Ben , we could be waiting a long time (= it is typical of him to be late) .
This man is known to the police (= as a criminal) .
I know Paris well.
Do you know the play (= have you seen or read it before) ?
The new rules could mean the end of football as we know it (= in the form that we are familiar with) .
~ sb/sth as sth | ~ sb/sth for sth
[usually passive] 把…看作是；认为…是
to think that sb/sth is a particular type of person or thing or has particular characteristics
[VN] It's known as the most dangerous part of the city.
She is best known for her work on the human brain.
[VN to inf] He's known to be an outstanding physicist.
命名 give name
[VN] ~ sb/sth as sth
[usually passive] 将…称为；把…叫做
to give sb/sth a particular name or title
The drug is commonly known as Ecstasy.
Peter Wilson, also known as ‘the Tiger’.
to be able to recognize sb/sth
I couldn't see who was speaking, but I knew the voice.
She knows a bargain when she sees one.
[VN] ~ sb/sth from sb/sth
to be able to distinguish one person or thing from another
I hope we have taught our children to know right from wrong.
to have learned a skill or language and be able to use it
[VN] Do you know any Japanese?
[V wh-] Do you know how to use spreadsheets?
(only used in the perfect tenses 仅用于完成时) 看到过；听到过；经历过
to have seen, heard or experienced sth
[VN inf , VN to inf] I've never known it (to) snow in July before.
[VN to inf] He has been known to spend all morning in the bathroom.
to have personal experience of sth
He has known both poverty and wealth.
She may be successful now, but she has known what it is like to be poor.
before you know where you are
very quickly or suddenly
We were whisked off in a taxi before we knew where we were.
be not to know
to have no way of realizing or being aware that you have done sth wrong
‘I'm sorry, I called when you were in bed.’ ‘Don't worry─you weren't to know.’
for all you, I, they, etc. know
used to emphasize that you do not know sth and that it is not important to you
She could be dead for all I know.
used to emphasize that you do not know sth
God knows what else they might find.
‘Where are they?’ ‘Goodness knows.’
【帮助说明】 Some people may find the use of God knows offensive. 有人可能认为用God knows含冒犯意。
used to emphasize the truth of what you are saying
She ought to pass the exam─goodness knows she's been working hard enough.
I don't know how, why, etc.…
used to criticize sb's behaviour
I don't know how you can say things like that.
used to agree with sb or to show sympathy
‘What a ridiculous situation!’ ‘I know.’
used to introduce a new idea or suggestion
I know, let's see what's on at the theatre.
know sth as well as I do
used to criticize sb by saying that they should realize or understand sth
You know as well as I do that you're being unreasonable.
know sb/sth backwards
(informal, especially BrE) 对…了如指掌（或倒背如流）；把…背得滚瓜烂熟
to know sb/sth extremely well
She must know the play backwards by now.
to know what should be done, etc. better than other people
The doctor told you to stay in bed, and she knows best.
know better (than that/than to do sth)
to be sensible enough not to do sth
He knows better than to judge by appearances.
know sb by sight
to recognize sb without knowing them well
to have information or evidence that the opposite is true
He says he doesn't care about what the critics write, but I know different.
know full well
to be very aware of a fact and unable to deny or ignore it
He knew full well what she thought of it.
know sb/sth inside out
know sb/sth like the back of your hand
to be very familiar with sth
This is where I grew up. I know this area like the back of my hand.
know your own mind
to have very firm ideas about what you want to do
know your stuff
to know a lot about a particular subject or job
know your way around
to be familiar with a place, subject, etc.
know what you're talking about
to have knowledge about sth from your own experience
know which side your bread is buttered
to know where you can get an advantage for yourself
let it be known/make it known that…
to make sure that people are informed about sth, especially by getting sb else to tell them
The President has let it be known that he does not intend to run for election again.
let sb know
to tell sb about sth
Let me know how I can help.
make yourself known to sb
to introduce yourself to sb
I made myself known to the hotel manager.
not know any better
to behave badly, usually because you have not been taught the correct way to behave
not know your arse from your elbow
(BrE, taboo, slang) 愚蠢之至；屁都不懂
to be very stupid or completely lacking in skill
not know beans about sth
(NAmE, informal) 完全不懂行；对…一窍不通
to know nothing about a subject
not know the first thing about sb/sth
to know nothing at all about sb/sth
not know sb from Adam
to not know at all who sb is
not know what hit you
to be so surprised by sth that you do not know how to react
not know where to look
to feel great embarrassment and not know how to react
not know whether you're coming or going
to be so excited or confused that you cannot behave or think in a sensible way
not know you are born
(BrE, informal) 身在福中不知福
to have an easy life without realizing how easy it is
You people without kids don't know you're born.
there's no knowing
used to say that it is impossible to say what might happen
There's no knowing how he'll react.
what does… know?
used to say that sb knows nothing about the subject you are talking about
What does he know about football, anyway?
what do you know?
used to express surprise
Well, what do you know? Look who's here!
used when you are thinking of what to say next
Well, you know, it's difficult to explain.
used to show that what you are referring to is known or understood by the person you are speaking to
Guess who I've just seen? Maggie! You know─Jim's wife.
You know that restaurant round the corner? It's closed down.
used to emphasize sth that you are saying
I'm not stupid, you know.
you know something/what?
used to introduce an interesting or surprising opinion, piece of news, etc.
You know something? I've never really enjoyed Christmas.
you know who/what
(informal) （不说出名称）你知道是谁 / 什么
used to refer to sb/sth without mentioning a name
you never know
used to say that you can never be certain about what will happen in the future, especially when you are suggesting that sth good might happen
have/know all the answers
(informal, often disapproving) （自以为）全懂，什么都精通
to be confident that you know sth, especially when you actually do not
He thinks he knows all the answers.
have seen/known better days
to be in poor condition
Our car has seen better days!
better the devil you know (than the devil you don't)
used to say that it is easier and wiser to stay in a bad situation that you know and can deal with rather than change to a new situation which may be much worse
as far as I know
as far as I can remember, see, tell, etc.
used to say that you think you know, remember, understand, etc. sth but you cannot be completely sure, especially because you do not know all the facts
As far as we knew, there was no cause for concern.
As far as I can see, you've done nothing wrong.
She lived in Chicago, as far as I can remember.
old enough to know better
old enough to behave in a more sensible way than you actually did
have/know sth off pat
NAmE have/know sth down pat
to know sth perfectly so that you can repeat it at any time without having to think about it
He had all the answers off pat.
show sb/know/learn the ropes
(informal) 向某人演示 / 知道 / 学会如何做某事
to show sb/know/learn how a particular job should be done
know/tell sb a thing or two (about sb/sth)
(informal) 了解 / 透露有用的（或有趣的、意外的）信息；有所了解 / 披露；见多识广
to know/tell sb some useful, interesting or surprising information about sb/sth
She's been married five times, so she knows a thing or two about men!
in the know
having more information about sth than most people
Somebody in the know told me he's going to resign.
If you know a fact, a piece of information, or an answer, you have it correctly in your mind.I don't know the name of the place...我不知道那个地方的名字。
If you know someone, you are familiar with them because you have met them and talked to them before.Gifford was a friend. I'd known him for nine years...吉福德是我的一位朋友。我和他认识9年了。
If you say that you know of something, you mean that you have heard about it but you do not necessarily have a lot of information about it.We know of the incident but have no further details...我们听说过这件事，但对详情不是很清楚。
If you know about a subject, you have studied it or taken an interest in it, and understand part or all of it.Hire someone with experience, someone who knows about real estate...雇佣有经验、了解房地产业的人。
If you know a language, you have learned it and can understand it.It helps to know French and Creole if you want to understand some of the lyrics...如果你想读懂一些抒情诗，学点法语和克里奥尔语是有帮助的。
If you know something such as a place, a work of art, or an idea, you have visited it, seen it, read it, or heard about it, and so you are familiar with it.No matter how well you know Paris, it is easy to get lost...不管你对巴黎多么熟悉，也很容易迷路。
If you know how to do something, you have the necessary skills and knowledge to do it.The health authorities now know how to deal with the disease...卫生部门现在知道如何对付这种病了。
You can say that someone knows that something is happening when they become aware of it.Then I saw a gun under the hall table so I knew that something was wrong...后来我看到大厅的桌子下有一把枪，我就意识到有些不对劲儿。
If you know something or someone, you recognize them when you see them or hear them.Would she know you if she saw you on the street?...如果她在大街上看到你，能认出你吗？
10VERB 称为；叫做If someone or something is known as a particular name, they are called by that name.The disease is more commonly known as Mad Cow Disease...这种疾病更通俗的名称是疯牛病。
If you know someone or something as a person or thing that has particular qualities, you consider that they have those qualities.Lots of people know her as a very kind woman...很多人认为她是个非常善良的女人。
If you know someone as a person with a particular job or role, you are familiar with them in that job or role, rather than in any other.Most of us know her as the woman who used to present the television news...我们大多数人认识她是因为她曾主持过电视新闻节目。
See also: knowing; known
If you talk about a thing or system as we know it, you are referring to the form in which it exists now and which is familiar to most people.He planned to end the welfare system as we know it.他计划终止现行的福利制度。
If you get to know someone, you find out what they are like by spending time with them.The new neighbours were getting to know each other...新邻居之间正在互相了解。
People use expressions such as goodness knows ,Heaven knows, and God knows when they do not know something and want to suggest that nobody could possibly know it.'Who's he?' — 'God knows.'“他是谁？”——“天晓得。”
You say 'I know' to show that you agree with what has just been said.'This country is so awful.' — 'I know, I know.'“这个国家太糟糕了。”——“的确是，的确是。”
You say 'I know' to show that you accept that something is true, but think that it is not very important or relevant.'There are trains straight from Cambridge.' — 'I know, but it's no quicker.'“有直接从剑桥开出的列车。”——“我知道，但也不快。”
You use 'I know' to express sympathy and understanding towards someone.I'm sorry, George. I know how you feel...我很遗憾，乔治。我理解你的感受。
You can use I don't know to indicate that you do not completely agree with something or do not really think that it is true.'He should quite simply resign.' — 'I don't know about that.'“他就该辞职。”——“我不知道。”
You can say 'I don't know about you' to indicate that you are going to give your own opinion about something and you want to find out if someone else feels the same.I don't know about the rest of you, but I'm hungry...我不知道你们怎么样，但我是饿了。
You use I don't know in expressions which indicate criticism of someone's behaviour. For example, if you say that you do not know how someone can do something, you mean that you cannot understand or accept them doing it.I don't know how he could do this to his own daughter...真想不到他竟对自己的女儿这样。
People sometimes use expressions such as I'm blessed if I know or damned if I know to emphasize the fact that they do not know something.'What was that all about?' — 'Damned if I know.'“那都是关于什么的？”——“我要知道就好了。”
If you are in the know about something, especially something that is not known about or understood by many people, you have information about it.It was gratifying to be in the know about important people...了解重要人物的一些内幕真令人高兴。
You can use expressions such as you know what I mean and if you know what I mean to suggest that the person listening to you understands what you are trying to say, and so you do not have to explain any more.None of us stayed long. I mean, the atmosphere wasn't — well, you know what I mean...我们都没呆太久。我的意思是，气氛并不是——唔，你知道我的意思。
You say 'You never know' or 'One never knows' to indicate that it is not definite or certain what will happen in the future, and to suggest that there is some hope that things will turn out well.You never know, I might get lucky...很难说，我也许会交好运呢。
You say 'Not that I know of' when someone has asked you whether or not something is true and you think the answer is 'no' but you cannot be sure because you do not know all the facts.'Is he married?' — 'Not that I know of.'“他结婚了吗？”——“据我所知没有。”
You can say 'How was I to know?', or in British English 'I wasn't to know', to mean that you cannot be blamed or criticized for something you did, because you did not have enough information to realize that it was wrong.How was I to know you'd return so suddenly?...我怎么知道你会这么突然就回来?
You can use expressions such as What does she know? and What do they know? when you think that someone has no right to comment on a situation because they do not understand it.Don't listen to him, what does he know?...别听他的，他知道什么？
People sometimes say 'What do you know!' when they are very surprised about something.Well, what do you know!哎呀，真没想到！
You use you know to emphasize or to draw attention to what you are saying.The conditions in there are awful, you know...你要知道，那里的条件很艰苦。
People use you know when they are uncertain about what they are saying or what they are going to say next.He's generous and, you know, very nice, very polite...他很大方而且，你知道，很友善，很有礼貌。
You use you know when you are trying to explain more clearly what you mean, by referring to something that the person you are talking to knows about.Wear the white dress, you know, the one with all the black embroidery.穿那件白裙，你知道的，上面有黑色刺绣的那件。
You can say 'You don't know' in order to emphasize how strongly you feel about the remark you are going to make.You don't know how good it is to speak to somebody from home.你不知道和家乡来的人说说话感觉有多好。
35to know something backwards →see: backwards
know about 了解 ; 知道…的情况 ; 知道有关于 ; 知道
know better 明事理 ; 有头脑 ; 有不止如此的了解 ; 大街上踢足球
Know Ignorance 知其不知
Know little 知道得很少 ; 知道的少 ; 知道很少 ; 知之不多
Know More 知道更多 ; 懂得的越多 ; 知识创新 ; 比较深入
know Service 知名服务
Know your 懂你 ; 认识你 ; 对不起 ; 抱歉
Know Limitations 了解的限制 ; 知道的局限性 ; 知道限制
know none 知道没有 ; 都不认识 ; 知道无
I do not know every one of you.
I do not know why you like him.
How do I know what I should do, what not to do?
2.know可用作不及物动词,也可用作及物动词。用作及物动词作“知道,懂得”解时,可接表示事物的名词、代词、带疑问词的动词不定式、that或疑问词引导的从句作宾语,也可接以“(to be/as+) n./adj./prep. -phrase. ”或动词不定式充当补足语的复合宾语。作“认识,了解”解时,可接表示人或物的名词作宾语。know可用于被动结构。know接to be作宾语补足语时, to be常可省略,但当to be表示的时间先于know表示的时间时,须用不定式的完成式,且不可省略。